Radiation Surface Science and Engineering Lab


Peer-reviewed Publications, Book Chapters and Patents


A. Peer-reviewed Publications


  1. Bedoya, F., Allain, J.P., Dominguez-Gutierrez, F.J., Drstic, P.S. (2019) “Effect of deuterium irradiation on graphite boronized in the NSTX-U tokamak”, Scientific Reports, Springer Nature, Vol 9, Art. 2435, February 21, 2019
  2. Civantos, A., Barnwell, A., Shetty, A.R., Pavon, J., El-Atwani, O., Arias, S.L, Lang, E., Reece, L.M., Chen, M., Allain, J.P. (2019) “Designing nanostructured Ti6Al4V bioactive interfaces with directed irradiation synthesis towards cell stimulation to promote host tissue-implant integration”, ACS Biomaterials Science & Engineering, online May 13, 2019
  3. Civantos, A., Domínguez, C., Pino, RJ.,  Setti, G.,  Pavon, J.J., Martínez-Campos, E., Garcia Garcia, F.J.,  Rodriguez, A.,  Allain, J.P.;  Torres, Y (2019) “Designing bioactive porous titanium interfaces to balance mechanical properties and in vitro cells behavior towards increased osseointegration”, Surface and Coatings Technology, March 5, 2019
  4. Echeverry-Rendon, M., Allain, J.P., Robledo, S.M., Echeverria, F., Harmsen, M.C. (2019) “Coatings for biodegradable magnesium-based supports for therapy of vascular disease: A general view”, Materials Science and Engineering: C, Volume 102, September 2019, Pages 150-163, online April 17, 2019
  5. Lang, E., Madden, N., Smith, C., Krogstad, J., Allain, J.P. (2019) “Deciphering the role of second phase precipitates on early-stage surface morphology development of dispersion-strengthened W alloys under low energy He irradiation”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, Vol. 19, May 2019, Pages 47-54
  6. Lang, E., Reid, N., Garrison, L., Parish, C., Allain, J.P. (2019) “Pre-Irradiation Comparison of W-Based Alloys for the PHENIX Campaign: Microstructure, Composition, and Mechanical Properties”, Fusion Science and Technology, May 2019
  7. Maingi, R., Lumsdaine, A., Allain, J.P., Chacon, L., Gourlay, S.A., Greenfield, C.M., Hughes, J.W., Humphreys, D., Izzo, V., McLean, H.k, Menard, J.E., Merrill, B., Rapp, J., Schmitz, O., Spadaccini, C., Wang, Zl, White A.E.,  Wirth, B.D. (2019) “Summary of the FESAC Transformative Enabling Capabilities Panel Report”, Fusion Science and Technology, 75:3, Pages 167-177, online March 26, 2019
  8. Neff, A.L.; Allain, J.P. (2019) “In-operando observation of helium-irradiation ion effects on surface deuterium retention through LiOH bonding in lithium films on tungsten substrates”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, Volume 19, May 2019, Pages 463-467
  9. Reid, N.C., Garrison, L., Taylor, C., Allain, J.P. (2019) “Elemental Characterization of Neutron Irradiated Tungsten Using the GD-OES Technique”, Fusion Science and Technology, May 2019
  10. Srivastava, I.,  


  1. Arias, SL; Shetty, A; Devorkin, J; Allain, J.P. (2018) “Magnetic targeting of smooth muscle cells in vitro using a magnetic bacterial cellulose to improve cell retention in tissue-engineering vascular grafts” – Acta Biomaterialia, Vol 77, pp 172-181, September 2018
  2. Bedoya, F.; Allain, J.P.; Scotti, B., LaBombard, B., Kaita, R., Krstic, P.S. (2018) “Effect of boronization on plama-facing graphite surfaces and its correlation with the plasma behavior in NSTX-U”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, Vol. 17, pg. 211-216, December 2018
  3. Domínguez-Gutiérrez, FJ; Krstić, PS; Allain, J.P.; Bedoya, F; Islam, MM;  Lotfi, R; van Duin, A CT (2018) “Deuterium uptake and sputtering of simultaneous lithiated, boronized, and oxidized carbon surfaces irradiated by low-energy deuterium”, Journal of Applied Physics, 123, 195901, May 2018
  4. Gates D, Anderson D, Anderson S, Zarnstorff M, Spong D, Weitzner H, Neilson G, Ruzic D, Andruczyk D, Harris J, Mynick H, Hegna C, Schmitz O, Talmadge J, Curreli D, Maurer D, Boozer A, Knowlton S, Allain J.P., et al. (2018) “Stellarator Research Opportunities: A Report of the National Stellarator Coordinator Committee”, Journal of Fusion Energy, Vol 37, issue 1, pp 51-94, February 2018
  5. Hammouti, S; Holybee, B; Zhu, W; Allain, J.P.; Jurczyk, B; Ruzic, D (2018), “Titanium nitride formation by a dual-stage femtosecond laser process”,  Applied Physics A, 124:411, May 8, 2018
  6. Krstic, PS; Allain, J.P.; Dominguez-Gutierrez, F-J; Bedoya, F (2018) “Unraveling the surface chemistry processes in litigated and boronized plasma material interfaces under extreme conditions”, Matter and Radiation at Extremes, Vol 3, Issue 4, pp 165-187, July  2018, Review Article
  7. Lang, E; Madden, N; Smith, C; Krogstad, J; Allain, J.P. (2018) “Microstructural and compositional effects of transition metal carbide additions on dispersion-strengthened tungsten fabricated via spark plasma sintering”, International Journal of Refractory Metals and Hard Materials, Vol 75, pg 279-286, September 2018
  8. Lively, M; Bennett, S; Allain, J.P. (2018) “Molecular dynamics studies of ion beam implantation and patterning of silicon: Effect of noble gas cluster formation”, Physical Review B, Vol 97, issue 23, June 2018
  9. Pavon, J.J.; Allain, J.P.; Verma, D.; Echeverry-Rendon, M.; Cooper, C.; Reece, L.; Shetty, A.; Tomar, V. (2018) “In situ Study Unravels Bio-Nanomechanical Behavior in a Magnetic Bacterial Nano-cellulose (MBNC) Hydrogel for Neuro-Endovascular Reconstruction”, Macromolecular Bioscience, First published November 19, 2018, Vol.19, Issue 2, Feb 2019
  10. Pavon, J.J.; Lopez, D.; Mondragon, F.; Gallego, J.; Arias, S.; Luitjohan, K.; Holybee, B.; Torres, Y.; Rodriguez, J.; Echeverry-Rendon, M.; Civantos, A.; Allain, J.P. (2018) “Balancing biofunctional and biomechanical properties using porous titanium reinforced by carbon nanotubes”, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, Online November 2018, Vol 107, Issue 4, April 2019, Pages 719-731
  11. Rizkallah, R; Andruczyk, D.; Shone, A.; Johnson, D.;Jeckell, Z.; Marcinko, S; Song, Z; Curreli, D.; Kapat, A., Allain, J.P.; et al. (2018) “Latest Results From the Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications (HIDRA)”, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Issue 7, Vol. 46, pg. 2685-2690, June 2018


  1. Allain, J.P.; Shetty, A (2017) “Unraveling atomic-level self-organization at the plasma-material interface”, Journal of Physics D: Applied Physics, Vol 50, Number 28, Special Issue on Achieving Atomistic Control in Plasma-Material Interactions, June 2017, Topical Review
  2. Bedoya, F; Allain, J.P.; Kaita, R; Skinner, CH; Koel, BE; Scotti, F (2017) ” Initial studies of plasma facing component surface conditioning in the national spherical tokamak experiment upgrade with the materials analysis particle probe”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, April 6, 2017
  3. Dominguez-Gutierrez, J.; Bedoya, F., Krstic, P; Allain, J.P.; Irle, S.; Skinner, C.; Kaita, R; Koel, B (2017) “Unraveling the plasma-material interface with real time diagnosis of dynamic boron conditioning in extreme tokamak plasmas”, Nuclear Fusion, June 2017
  4. Echeverry-Rendon, M., Reece, L.M., Pastrana, F., Arias, S.L., Akshath, S.R., Pavon, J.J., Allain, J.P. (2017): “Bacterial Nanocellulose Magnetically Functionalized for Neuro-Endovascular Treatment”, Macromolecular Bioscience, January 24, 2017
  5. El-Atwani, O, Hinks, J.A., Greaves, G., Allain, J.P., Maloy, S.A. (2017): “Grain size threshold for enhanced irradiation resistance in nanocrystalline and ultrafine tungsten”, Materials Research Letters, pp 343-349, February 21, 2017
  6. Lang E., Kapat, A., Allain, J.P. (2017) “Deciphering surface behavior and deuterium retention in tin-lithium-coated fuzzy tungsten substrates”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2017 (online July 29,2017)
  7. Lively, MA; Holybee, B; Toriyama, M; Allain, J.P. (2017) “Massive-scale molecular dynamics of ion-irradiated II-V compound semiconductors at the onset of nanopatterning”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, April 24, 2017
  8. Majeski, R., Bell, R.E., Boyle, D.P., Kaita, R., Kozub, T., LeBlanc, B.P., Lucia, M., Maingi, R., Merino, E., Raitses, Y., Schmitt, J.C., Allain, J.P., Bedoya, F., Bialek, J., Biewer, T.M., Canik, J.M., Buzi, L., Koel, B.E., Patino, M.I., Capece, A.M., Hansen, C., Jarboe, T., Kubota, S., Peebles, W.A., Tritz, K. (2017) “Compatibility of lithium plasma-facing surfaces with high edge temperatures in the Lithium Tokamak Experiment”,  Physics of Plasmas,  24 ( 5 ) , art. no. 056110
  9. Menard, J.E., Allain, J.P., Battaglia, D.J., Bedoya, F. Bell, R.E., et. al (2017) “Overview of NSTX Upgrade Initial Results and Modelling Highlights”, Nuclear Fusion vol. 57 p. 102006, October 2017
  10. Skinner, C.H., Bedoya, F., Scotti, F, Allain, J.P., Blanchard, W., Cai, D., Jaworski, M., Koel, B.E. (2017) “Advances in boronization on NSTX-Upgrade”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, Vol 12, pp 744-748, August 2017


  1. Arias, S.L., Akshath, S.R., Senpan, A., Echeverry-Rendon, M., Reece, L.M., Allain, J.P. (2016): “Fabrication of a Functionalized Magnetic Bacterial Nanocellulose with Iron Oxide Nanoparticles”, The Journal of Visualized Experiments (JoVE) Bioengineering, Issue 111, May 2016
  2. Bedoya, F., Allain, J.P., Kaita, R., Skinner, C.H., Buzi, L., Koel, B.E. (2016)  “Unraveling wall conditioning effects on plasma facing components in NSTX-U with the Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP)”, Rev. Sci. Instrum. 87, 11D403, 2016
  3. Dominguez-Gutierrez, F.J., Bedoya, F.,  Krstic, P.S.,  Allain, J.P., Neff, A.L., Luitjohan K. (2016): “Studies of lithiumization and boronization of ATJ graphite PFCs in NSTX-U”, Nuclear Materials and Energy, 2016
  4. Kaita, R.,Lucia, M., Allain, J.P., Bedoya, F., Bell, R., Boyle, D., Capece, A., Jaworski, M., Koel, B.E.,  Majeski, R., Roszell, J., Schmitt, J., Scotti, F., Skinner, C.H., Soukhanovskii, V. (2016) “Hydrogen retention in lithium on metallic walls from “in vacuo” analysis in LTX and implications for high-Z plasma-facing components in NSTX-U”, Fusion Engineering and Design, 2016
  5. Pastrana, H.F., Cooper, C., Alucozai, M., Reece, L.M., Avila, A., Allain, J.P. (2016): “Synthesis and in vitro safety assessment of magnetic bacterial cellulose with porcine aortic smooth muscle cells”, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, 1552-4965


  1. Andruczyk, D., Ruzic, DN., Curreli, D., Allain, J.P., HIDRA Team. (2015): “HIDRA: Hybrid Illinois Device for Research and Applications”, Fusion Science and Technology, Volume 68, I. 3, American Nuclear Society, 2015/10/1
  2. El-Atwani, O., Norris, S.A., Ludwig, K., Gonderman, S., Allain, J.P. (2015): “Ion beam nanopatterning of III-V semiconductors: consistency of experimental and simulation trends within a chemistry-driven theory”, Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group. 5, 18207, 16.12.2015
  3. El-Atwani, O., Gonderman, S., Suslov, S., Efe, M., De Temmerman, G., Morgan, T., Bystrov, K., Hattar, K., Allain, J.P. (2015): “Early stage damage of ultrafine-grained tungsten materials exposed to low energy helium ion irradiation”, Fusion Engineering and Design, Volume 93, Pg 9-14, 2015/4/30, online 27 February 2015.
  4. Ghoniem, N.M., Sehirlioglu, A., Neff, A.L., Allain, J.P., Williams, B., Sharghi-Moshtaghin, R. (2015): “Sputtering of Molybdenum and Tungsten Nano Rods & Nodules Irradiated with 150 eV argon Ions”, Applied Surface Science, Volume 331, 15 , Pages 299–308, March 2015
  5. Kaita, R., Abrams, T., Jaworski, M., Lucia, M., Nichols, J.H., Skinner, C.H., Stotler, D., Allain, J.P., Bedoya, F. (2015): “Addressing the Challenges of Plasma-Surface Interactions in NSTX-U”, IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, Volume 43, Issue 4, 1 April 2015, Pages 965-971, online 26 January 2015.
  6. Kaye, S.M., Abrams T., Ahn2, J.-W. , Allain, J.P., Andre, R., Andruczyk, D., et al. (2015): “An overview of recent physics results from NSTX”, Nuclear Fusion 55,10, 2015
  7. Munoz, S., Pavon, J., Rodriguez-Ortiz, J.A., Civantos, A., Allain, J.P., Torres, Y. (2015): “On the influence of space holder in the development of porous titanium implants: Mechanical, computational and biological evaluation”, Materials Characterization, Vol 108, October 2015, Pages 68-78, online September 2, 2015.
  8. Yang, Z., Lively, M., Allain, J.P. (2015): “Kinetic Monte Carlo simulation of self-organized pattern formation induced by ion beam sputtering using crater functions”, Phys. Rev. B 91, 075427 –  26 February 2015.


  1. El-Atwani, O., Hinks, J., Greaves, G., Gonderman S., Qiu, T., Efe, M., Allain, J.P. (2014): “In-situ TEM observation of the response of ultrafine- and nanocrystalline-grained tungsten to extreme irradiation environments”, Scientific Reports, Nature Publishing Group. 4, 4716, 06.05.2014
  2. El-Atwani, O., Gonderman, S., Efe, M., De Temmerman, G., Morgan, T., Bystrov, K., Hinks, J., Greaves, G., Klenosky, D., Qiu, T., Allain, J.P. (2014): “Ultrafine tungsten as a plasma-facing component in fusion devices: effect of high flux, high fluence low energy helium irradiation”, Nuclear Fusion, 54, 8, 083013.
  3. Hattar, K., El-Atwani, O., Efe, M., Novakowski, T.J., Suslova, A., Allain, J.P. (2014): “Helium Implantation of Ultrafine Grained Tungsten within a TEM”. Materials Research Society Proceedings. 1645, mrsf13-1645-zz01-04, Cambridge University Press.
  4. Lucia, M., Kaita, R., Majeski, R., Bedoya, F., Allain, J.P., Boyle, D.P., Schmitt, J.C., St Onge, D.A. (2014): “Development progress of the Materials Analysis and Particle Probe”, Review of Scientific Instruments, 85, 11, 11D835
  5. Lucia, M.,  Kaita, R.,  Majeski, R.,  Bedoya, F., Allain, JP., Abrams, T., Bell, R.E., Boyle, DE., Jaworski, MA., Schmitt JC. (2014): “Dependence of LTX plasma performance on surface conditions as determined by in situ analysis of plasma facing components”.  Journal of Nuclear Materials 463, pp.907 – 910, 22 July 2015, online 2014.11.06
  6. Neff, AL, Allain, J.P., Bedoya, F., Morgan, T., Temmerman,G De. (2014): “High flux irradiations of Li coatings on polycrystalline W and ATJ graphite with D, He, and He-seeded D plasmas at Magnum PSI”, Journal of Nuclear Materials 463, pp. 1147 – 1151, 22 July 2015, online 2014.12.3
  7. Taylor, C.N, Allain, J.P., Krstic, P.S., Dadras, J., Luitjohan, K.E., Skinner, C.H. (2014): “Differentiating the role of lithium and oxygen in retaining deuterium on lithiated plasma-facing components” Physics of Plasmas, 21, 057101, Invited Article.
  8. Walker, E., Nauman, E., Allain, J.P., Stanciu, L. (2014): “An invitro model for preclinical testing of thrombogenicity of resorbable metallic stents”. Journal of Biomedical Materials Research Part A, Volume 103, Issue 6, Pages 2118-2125, 2015/6/1, online 2014/10/21


  1. El-Atwani, O., Fowler, J., Gonderman, S., Allain, J.P. (2013): “Near sputter-threshold GaSb nanopatterning”, Journal of Applied Physics 114,104308.
  2. El-Atwani, O., Suslova, A., DeMasi, A., Gonderman, S., Fowler, J., El-Atwani, M., Ludwig, K., Allain, J.P. (2013): “Nanopatterning of metal-coated silicon surfaces via ion beam irradiation: real time x-ray studies reveal the effect of silicide bonding”. Journal of Applied Physics 113, 12,124305.
  3. El-Atwani, O., Efe, M., Heim, B., Allain, J.P. (2013): “Surface damage in ultrafine and multimodal grained tungsten materials induced by low energy helium irradiation”. Journal of Nuclear Materials 434, 1, 170-177. Top 25 Hottest Articles, Journal of Nuclear Materials. April to June 2013, Sciencedirect.
  4. Jaworski, M.A., Abrams, T., Allain, J.P., Bell, M.G., Bell, R.E., Diallo, A., Gray, T.K., Gerhardt, S.P., Kugel, H.W., LeBlanc, B.P., Maingi, R., McLean, A.G., Menard, J., Ono, M., Podesta, M., Roquemore, A.L., Sabbagh, S.A., Scotti, F., Skinner, C.H.K., Soukhanovskii, V.A., Stotler, D.P., NSTX Team (2013): “Liquid lithium divertor characteristics and plasma-material interactions in NSTX high-performance plasmas” Nuclear Fusion, 53, 083032.
  5. Kaita, R., Kugel, H.W., Abrams, T., Allain, J.P., Bell, M.G., Bell R.E., Diallo, A., Gerhardt, S.P., Heim, B., Jaworski, M.A., Kallman, J., Kaye, S., LeBlanc, B.P., Maingi, R., Mansfield, D., McLean A., Menard, J., Mueller, D., Nygren, R., Ono, M., Paul, S.F., Podesta, M., Raman, R., Roquemore, A.L., Sabbagh, S.A., Scotti, F., Skinner, C.H., Soukhanovskii, V.A., Taylor, C.N., Zakharov, L. (2013): “Characterization of fueling NSTX H-mode plasmas diverted to a liquid lithium divertor” Journal of Nuclear Materials, 438, S488-S492.
  6. Krstic, P.S., Allain, J.P., Taylor, C.N., Dadras, J., Maeda, S., Morokuma, K., Allouche, A., Skinner, C.H. (2013) “Deuterium uptake in magnetic fusion devices with lithium conditioned carbon walls”. Physical Review Letters, 110, 10, 105001.
  7. Ono, M., Jaworski, M., Kaita, R., Kugel, H.W., Ahn, J-W., Allain, J.P., et al. (2013): “Recent Progress in the NSTX/NSTX-U Lithium Program and Prospects for Reactor-Relevant Liquid-Lithium Based Divertor Development”. Nuclear Fusion 53, 113030.
  8. Ono, M., Jaworski, M., Kaita, R., Skinner, CH., Allain, J.P., Maingi, R., Scotti, F., Soukhanovskii, V.A. (2013): “Overview of Innovative PMI Research on NSTX-U and Associated PMI Facilities at PPPL”. Fusion Science and Technology, 63, 21-28.
  9. Sabbagh, S.A., Ahn, J-W., Allain, J.P., Andre, R., Balbaky, A., et al. (2013): “Overview of physics results from the conclusive operation of the National Spherical Torus Experiment” Nuclear Fusion, 53, 104007.
  10. Taylor, C.N., Luitjohan, K.E., Allain, J.P., Krstic, P.S., Dadras, J. (2013): “The role of oxygen in the uptake of deuterium in lithiated graphite,” Journal of Applied Physics 114, 223301.
  11. Taylor, C.N., Luitjohan, K.E., Heim, B., Kollar, L., Allain, J.P., Skinner, C.H., Kugel, H.W., Kaita, R., Roquemore, A.L., Maingi, R. (2013): “Surface chemistry analysis of lithium conditioned NSTX graphite tiles correlated to plasma performance”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 88, 3157-3164.
  12. Yang, Z., Lively, M., Allain, J.P. (2013) “Atomistic simulations of ion-beam patterning with crater functions”, Nuclear Instruments and Methods Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 307, 189.


  1. Allain, J.P., El-Atwani, O., Suslova, A., Fowler, J., Taylor, C.N. (2012): “In-situ ion scattering surface characterization of nanostructured materials exposed to controlled irradiation fields”. Microscopy and Microanalysis. 18, S2, 886-887.
  2. Allain, J.P., Taylor, C.N. (2012): “Lithium-based surfaces controlling fusion plasma behavior at the plasma-material interface (invited)”. Physics of Plasmas. 19, 5, 056126.
  3. Brooks, J.N., Hassanein, A., Sizyuk, T., Allain, J.P. (2012): “Modeling of plasma/lithium-surface interactions in NSTX: Status and key issues”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 87, 10, 1737-1740.
  4. El-Atwani, O., Suslova, A., DeMasi, A., Gonderman, S., Fowler, J., El-Atwani, M., Ludwig, K., Allain, J.P. (2012): “Real time x-ray studies during nanostructure formation on silicon via low-energy ion-beam irradiation using ultrathin iron films”. Applied Physics Letters 101, 26, 263104.
  5. El-Atwani, O., Allain, J.P., Suslova, A. (2012): “The effect of native oxide on ion-sputtering-induced nanostructure formation of GaSb surfaces”. Applied Physics Letters. 101, 25, 251606.
  6. El-Atwani, O., Allain, J.P., Ortoleva, S. (2012): “In-situ probing of near and below sputter-threshold ion-induced nanopatterning on GaSb(100)”. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 272, 210-213.
  7. Heim, B., Gonderman, S., Taylor, C.N., Allain, J.P. et al. (2012): “The Materials Analysis Particle Probe (MAPP) Diagnostic System in NSTX”. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 40, 3, 735-739.
  8. Krstic, P., Allain, J.P., Allouche, A., Jakowski, J., Dadras, J. Taylor, C.N., Yang, Z. (2012): “Dynamics of deuterium retention and sputtering of Li-C-O surfaces”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 87, 10, 1732-1736.
  9. Kugel, H.W., Allain, J.P., Bell, M.G., Bell, R.E., Diallo, A. et al. (2012): “NSTX plasma operation with a Liquid Lithium Divertor”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 87, 10,1724-1731.
  10. Maingi, R., Boyle, D.P., Canik, J.M., Kaye, S.M., Skinner, C.H., Allain, J.P. et al. (2012): “The effect of progressively increasing lithium coatings on plasma discharge characteristics, transport, edge profiles and ELM stability in the National Spherical Torus Experiment”, Nuclear Fusion. 52,8, 083001.
  11. Ono, M., Bell, M.G., Kaita, R., Kugel, H.W., Ahn, J-W., Allain, J.P. et al. (2012) “Recent progress of NSTX lithium program and opportunities for magnetic fusion research”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 87, 10, 1770-1776.
  12. Taylor, C.N., Heim, B., Gonderman, S., Allain, J.P., Yang, Z., Kaita, R., Roquemore, A.L., Skinner, C.H., Ellis, R.A. (2012): “Materials Analysis and Particle Probe: A compact diagnostic system for in-situ analysis of plasma-facing components (invited)”. Review of Scientific Instruments. 83, 10, 10D703.


  1. Allain, J.P. (2011): “Self healing in extreme UV lithography collector mirrors”, SPIE Newsroom, August 17, 2011
  2. Allain, J.P., El-Atwani, O., Cimaroli, A., Rokusek, D.L, Ortoleva, S., Suslova, A. (2011): “Study of scalable IBS nanopatterning mechanisms for III-V semiconductors using in-situ surface characterization”. Material Research Society Proceedings, 1354, mrss11-1354-ii02-03.
  3. Allain J.P., Brooks, J.N. (2011): “Lithium surface-response modelling for the NSTX liquid lithium divertor”. Nuclear Fusion, 51, 2, 023002.
  4. Brooks, J.N., Allain, J.P., Whyte, D.G., Ochoukov, R., Lipschultzm B. (2011): “Analysis of C-MOD molybdenum divertor erosion and code/data comparison”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415, 1, S112-S116p.
  5. El-Atwani, O., Quach, D.V., Efe, M., Cantwell, P.R., Heim, B., Schultz, B., Stach, E.A., Groza, J.R., Allain, J.P. (2011): “Multimodal grain size distribution and high hardness in fine grained tungsten fabricated by spark plasma sintering”. Materials Science and Engineering: A, 528, 18, 5670-5677p.
  6. El-Atwani, O., Allain, J.P., Cimaroli, A., Suslova, A., Ortoleva, S. (2011): “The significance of in situ conditions in the characterization of GaSb nanopatterned surfaces via ion beam sputtering”. Journal of Applied Physics, 110, 7, 074301.
  7. El-Atwani, O., Ortoleva, S., Cimaroli A., Allain, J.P. (2011): “Formation of silicon nanodots via ion beam sputtering of ultra-thin gold thin film coatings on Si”. Nanoscale Research Letters, 6, 1, 1-5.
  8. Heim, B., Taylor, C.N., Zigon, D.M., O’Dell, S., Allain, J.P. (2011): “Deuterium ion-surface interactions of liquid-lithium thin films on micro-porous molybdenum substrates”. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atorms, 269, 11, 1262-1265p.
  9. Kugel, H.W., Bell, M.G., Allain, J.P., Bell, R.E., Taylor, C.N. et al. (2011) “NSTX Plasma Response to Lithium Coated Divertor”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415, 1, S400-S404p.
  10. Nieto-Perez M., Allain, J.P., Heim, B., Taylor, C.N. (2011): “Chemical and physical erosion of carbon and metallic substrates containing lithium during low-energy deuterium ion irradiation”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415, 1, S133-S136p.
  11. Raman, R., Ahn, J.W., Allain, J.P., Andre, R., Bastasz, R., Battaglia, D., Et al. (2011): “Overview of physics results from NSTX”. Nuclear Fusion, 51, 9, 094011p.
  12. Skinner, C.H., Allain, J.P., Bell, M.G., Friesen, F.Q.L., et al. (2011): “Lithium wall conditioning and surface dust detection on NSTX, and dust removal”. Physica Scripta T145, 014020.
  13. Skinner, C.H., Allain, J.P., Blanchard, W., Kugel, H.W., Maingi, R., Roquemore, L., Taylor, C.N., Soukhanovskii, V. (2011): “Deuterium retention in NSTX with lithium conditioning”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415, 1, S773-S776p.
  14. Taylor, C.N., Allain, J.P., Heim, B., Krstic, P.S., Skinner, C.H., Kugel H.W. (2011): “Surface chemistry and physics of deuterium retention in lithiated graphite”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 415, 1, S777-S780p.
  15. Taylor, C.N., Heim, B., Allain, J.P. (2011): “Chemical response of lithiated graphite with deuterium irradiation”. Journal of Applied Physics, 109, 5, 053306.


  1. Allain, J.P., Nieto-Perez, M., Hendricks, M.R., Zink, P., Metzmacher, C., Bergmann, K. (2010): “Energetic Sn+ irradiation effects on ruthenium mirror specular reflectivity at 13.5-nm”. Applied Physics A, 100 (1) 231-237p.
  2. Kugel, H.W., Bell, M.G., Allain, J.P, Bell, R.E., Taylor, C.N. et al. (2010): “Lithium coatings on NSTX plasma facing components and its effects on boundary control, core plasma performance, and operation”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 85, 6, 865-873p.
  3. Nieto-Perez, M., Allain, J.P., Ramos, G. (2010): “Modeling of Surface Composition Dynamics in the ITER Divertor Region”. IEEE Transactions on Plasma Science, 38, 414p.


  1.  Allain, J.P., Rokusek, Harilal, S.S., Nieto-Perez, M., Skinner, C.H., Kugel, H.W., Heim, B., Kaita, R., Majeski, R. (2009): “Experimental studies of Lithium-based surface chemistry for fusion plasma-facing materials applications”. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 390, 942-946p.
  2. Brooks, J.N., Allain, J.P., (2009): “Mixed-material evolution analysis of ITER plasma facing surfaces”. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 390, 123-126p.
  3. Brooks, J.N., Allain, J.P., Doerner, R.P., Hassanein, A., Nygren, R., Rognlien, T.D., Whyte, D.G. (2009): “Plasma surface interaction issues of an all-metal ITER”. Nuclear Fusion, 49, 3,035007.
  4. Gates, D.A., Ahn, J., Allain, J.P., Andre, R., Bastasz, R., Bell, M., Bell, R., Belova, E., et al. (2009): “Overview of results from the National Spherical Torus Experiment”. Nuclear Fusion, 49, 10, 104016.
  5. Harilal, S.S., Allain, J.P., Hassanein, A., Hendricks, M.R., Nieto-Perez, M., (2009): “Reactivity of lithium exposed graphite surface”. Applied Surface Science, 255, 20, 8539-8543p.
  6. Kugel, H.W., Mansfield, D.K., Maingi, R., Bell, M.G., Bell, R., Allain, J.P., et al. (2009): “Evaporated lithium surface coatings in NSTX”. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 390, 1000 -1004
  7. Litnovsky, A., Voitsenya, V., Sugie, T., Allain, J.P., et al. (2009): “Progress in research and development of mirrors for ITER diagnostics”. Nuclear Fusion, 49, 7, 075014.


  1. Allain, J.P., Nieto, M., Hassanein, A. (2008): “Specular reflectivity of 13.5-nm light from Sn islands deposited on grazing incidence mirror surfaces”. Applied Physics A, 91, 1, 13-16p.
  2. Brooks J.N., Allain, J.P. (2008): “Particle Deposition and Optical Response of ITER Motional Stark Effect Diagnostic First Mirrors”. Nuclear Fusion, 48, 4, 045003.
  3. Kugel, H.W., Bell, M.G., Ahn, J-W., Allain, J.P., et al. (2008): “The effect of lithium surface coatings on plasma performance in the National Spherical Torus Experiment”. Physics of Plasmas (1994-Present) 15, 5, 056118p.


  1. Allain, J.P., Coventry, M.D., Ruzic, D.N. (2007): “Collisional and thermal effects on liquid lithium sputtering”. Physical Review B, 76, 20, 205434.
  2. Allain, J.P., Nieto, M., Hendricks, M., Hassanein, A., Tarrio, C., Grantham, S. Bakshi, V (2007): “Energetic and thermal SN interactions and their effect on EUVL source collector mirror lifetime at high temperatures”. Advanced Lithography, pp. 65171V, International Society for Optics and Photonics.
  3. Allain, J.P., Nieto, M., Hendricks, M.R., Harilal, S.S., Hassanein, A. (2007): “Debris and radiation induced damage efects on EUV nanolithography source collector mirror optics performance” SPIE 6586, Damage to VUV, EUV, and X-Ray Optics, 65860W. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
  4. Allain, J.P., Nieto, M., Hendricks, M.R., Plotkin, P., Harilal, S.S., Hassanein, A. (2007): “IMPACT: a facility to study the interaction of low-energy intense charged particle beams with dynamic heterogeneous surfaces”. Review of Scientific Instruments, 78, 11, 113105.
  5. Cheng-Yue, L., Allain, J.P., Bai-Quan, D. (2007): “Effects of a liquid lithium curtain as the first wall in a fusion reactor plasma”. Chinese Physics, 16, 11, 3312.
  6. Deng, B.Q., Allain, J.P., Zheng-Ming, L., Li-Lin, P., Jian-Cheng, Y. (2007): “Near-surface bipartition model for the study of material response of plasma-facing surfaces exposed to energetic charged particles”. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms, 259, 2, 847 – 852p.
  7. Wong, C.P.C., Rudakov, D.L., Allain, J.P., Bastasz, R.J., et al. (2007): “Divertor and midplane materials evaluation system in DIII-D”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 363, 276-281p.


  1. Allain, J.P., Hassanein, A., Allain, MMC, Heuser, B.J., Nieto, M., et al. (2006): “Xe+-Irradiation Effects on Multilayer Thin-Film Optical Surfaces in EUV Lithography”. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 242, 1, 520-522.
  2. Brooks, J.N., Allain, J.P., Rognlien, T. (2006): “Erosion/redeposition analysis of the ITER first wall with convective and non-convective plasma transport”. Physics of Plasmas, 13, 12, 122502.
  3. Insepov, Z., Allain, J.P., Hassanein, A., Terasawa, M. (2006): “Surface erosion by highly-charged ions”. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research Section B: Beam Interactions with Materials and Atoms. 242, 1,498-502.
  4. Nieto, M., Allain J.P., Hassanein, A. et al. (2006): “Plasma-material interaction studies on lithium and lithiated substrates during compact Tokamak operation”. Plasma and Fusion Science:16th IAEA Technical Meeting on Research using Small Fusion Devices, AIP CP 875, 1, 78-82.
  5. Nieto, M., Allain, J.P., Titov, V., Hendricks, M., et al. (2006): “Effect of xenon bombardment on ruthenium-coated grazing incidence collector mirror lifetime for EUV lithography”. Journal of Applied Physics, 100, 5, 053510.


  1. Allain, J.P., Brooks, J.N., ALman, D.A., Gonzalez, L.E. (2005): “Model development and analysis of temperature-dependent lithium sputtering and sputtered Li+ transport for tokamak plasma-facing applications”. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 337, 94-98.
  2. Allain, J.P., Hassanein, A., Nieto, M., Titov, V., Plotkin, P., Hinson, E. et al. (2005): “Erosion and degradation of EUV lithography collector mirrors under particle bombardment”. Microlithography 1110-1117p. International Society for Optics and Photonics.
  3. Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N., Alman, D.A., Coventry, M.D. (2005): “A model for ion-bombardment induced erosion enhancement with target temperature”. Nuclear Instruments and Methods in Physics Research B: Beam interactions with Materials and Atoms. 239, 4, 347-355.
  4. Brooks, J.N. Allain, J.P., Alman, D., Ruzic, D. (2005): “Erosion, transport, and tritium codeposition analysis of a beryllium wall tokamak”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 72, 4, 363-375.
  5. Brooks, J.N., Allain, J.P., Bastasz, R., et al. (2005): “Overview of the ALPS Program”, Fusion Science and Technology, 47, 3, 669-677.
  6. Brooks, J.N., Allain, J.P., Rognlien, T., Maingi, R (2005): “PSI modeling of liquid lithium divertors for the NSTX tokamak”. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 337, 1053-1057.
  7. Deng, B.Q., Allain, J.P., Peng, L.L., Wang, X., Zhi, C., Jiancheng, Y. (2005): “Interaction of Impurity (Li, Be, B and C) and hydrogen isotope pellet injection interaction with reactor-relevant plasmas”. Plasma Science and Technology, 7, 1, 2615.
  8. Hassanein, A., Allain, J.P., Insepov, Z., Konkashbaev, I. (2005): “Plasma/Liquid-Metal Interactions During Tokamak Operation”. Fusion Science and Technology, 47, 3, 686-697.
  9. Rokusek, D.L., Allain, J.P., Hassanein, A., Nieto, M. (2005): “Erosion Studies of EUVL Candidate Collector Mirror Materials in the Impact Experiment”. Journal of Undergraduate Research, 5, 2005/11, DOESC.


  1. Allain, J.P., Brooks, J.N., Whyte, D.G. (2004): “Lithium erosion experiments and modelling under quiescent plasma conditions in DIII-D”, Nuclear Fusion, 44, 5, 655.
  2. Allain, J.P., Nieto, M., Coventry, M.D., Stubbers, R., Ruzic, D.N. (2004): “Studies of liquid-metal erosion and free surface flowing liquid lithium retention of helium at the University of Illinois”. Fusion Engineering and Design 72, 1, 93-110.
  3. Coventry, M.D., Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N. (2004): “Temperature dependence of liquid Sn sputtering by low-energy He+ and D+ bombardment”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 335, 1, 115-120.
  4. Whyte, D.G., Evans, T.E., Wong, C.P.C., West, W.P., Bastasz, R., Allain, J.P., Brooks, J.N. (2004): “Experimental observations of lithium as a plasma-facing surface in the DIII-D tokamak divertor” Fusion Engineering and Design 72, 1,133-147.


  1. Allain, J.P., Coventry, M.D., Ruzic, D.N. (2003): “Temperature dependence of liquid lithium sputtering from oblique 700 eV ions”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 313-316p, 645.
  2. Coventry, M.D., Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N. (2003): “D+, He+ and H+ sputtering of solid and liquid phase tin”. Journal of Nuclear Materials, 313-316p, 640.
  3. Nieto, M., Allain J.P., Ruzic, D.N. (2003): “Experimental measurements of helium retention in flowing liquid lithium”. Fusion Science and Technology. 44,1, 232-236p.
  4. Nieto, M., Ruzic, D.N., Allain, J.P., Coventry, MD, Vargas-Lopez, E. (2003): “Helium retention and diffusivity in flowing liquid lithium”; Journal of Nuclear Materials. 313, 646-650p.


  1. Allain, J.P., Nieto, M., Coventry, M.D., Neumann, M.J., Vargas-Lopez, E., Ruzic, D.N. (2002): “FLIRE – Flowing Liquid Surface Retention Experiment, Design and Testing”. Fusion Engineering and Design. 61, 245-250.
  2. Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N. (2002): “Deuterium treatment effects on lithium and tin-lithium sputtering in solid and liquid phase”, in NATO Science Series: Hydrogen and Helium Recycling at Plasma Facing Materials, ed. A. Hassanein (Kluwer Academic Publishers, Dordrecht, 2002) Vol. 54, 73-82p.
  3. Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N. (2002): “Measurements and modeling of low energy solid-phase lithium sputtering”, Nuclear Fusion, 42, 2, 202.
  4. Li, N., Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N. (2002): “Enhancement of aluminum-oxide physical vapour deposition with a secondary plasma”. Surface and Coatings Technology, 149, 2, 161-170p.


  1. Allain, J.P., Hendricks, M.R., Ruzic, D.N. (2001): “Measurements and modeling of D, He and Li sputtering of liquid lithium”. Journal of Nuclear Materials. 290, 180-184p.
  2. Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D.N., Hendricks, M.R. (2001): “D, He and Li sputtering of liquid eutectic Sn-Li”. Journal of Nuclear Materials 290, 33-37p.
  3. Brooks, J.N., Rognlien, T., Ruzic, D.N. Allain, J.P., (2001): “Erosion/redeposition analysis of lithium-based liquid surface divertors”, Journal of Nuclear Materials. 290, 185-190.
  4. Ranjan, R., Allain, J.P., Hendricks, M.R., Ruzic, D.N. (2001): “Absolute sputtering yield of Ti/TiN by Ar+/N+ at 400 to 700 eV”. Journal of Vacuum Science and Technology A., 19, 3, 1004-1007p.


  1. Mattas, R.F., Allain, J.P., Bastasz, R., Brooks, J.N., et. al. (2000): “ALPS-Advanced Limiter-divertor Plasma-facing Systems”. Fusion Engineering and Design, 49, 127-134p.

B. Book Chapters

  1. Allain, J.P., Ruzic, D. (2018). Fundamentals of Plasma-Material Interactions in Magnetic Fusion Devices. In Plasma Science and Technology – Basic Fundamentals and Modern Applications. Editor: Haikel Jelassi and Djamel Benredjem, IntechOpen, [Online First] DOI: 10.5772.intechopen.77157.
  2. Allain, J. P., Echeverry-Rendón, M. (2018). Surface treatment of metallic biomaterials in contact with blood to enhance hemocompatibility. In Hemocompatibility of Biomaterials for Clinical Applications: Blood-Biomaterials Interactions. Cambridge Elsevier Science & Technology. (pp. 279-326) Part of ISBN:9780081004975.
  3. Allain, J.P., Echeverry-Rondon, M., Pavon, J.J., Arias, S. (2014). Chapter 2. Nanostructured Biointerfaces, in the book of Nanopatterning and Nanoscale Devices for Biological Applications. Editor: Seila Selimovic, CRC Press 2014, Pages 42-67.
  4. Allain, J.P., Tigno, T., Armonda, R. (2013). Chapter 20. Nanotechnology for Cerebral Aneurysm Treatment, in the book Nanoneuroscience and Nanoneurosurgery. Editors: Babak Kateb and John D. Heiss, CRC Press 2013, Pages 259-282.
  5. Allain, J.P. (2011). Chapter 19. Irradiation Effects on EUV Nanolithography Collector Mirrors, in the book Recent Advances in Nanofabrication Techniques and Applications. Editor: Prof. Bo Cui, ISBN 9789533076027, InTech, December 12, 2011
  6. Allain, J.P., Hassanein, A., Nieto, M.. et al., (2006). Chapter 37. Electrode and Condenser Materials for Plasma Pinch Sources in the book EUV Sources for Lithography, Ed. V.Bakshi, SPIE Monograph Series, 2006.
  7. Allain, J.P., Ruzik, D., (2002). Chapter 8. Deuterium Treatment Effects on Lithium and Tin-Lithium Sputtering in Solid and Liquid Phase, in the book Hydrogen and Helium Recycling at Plasma Facing Materials. Editor: Ahmed Hassanein. Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht, Volume 54 of the series NATO Science Series pp 73-82

C. Patents

  1. Allain, J.P., El-Atwani, O., Palacio, J.J.: Methods for Directed Irradiation Synthesis with Ion and Thermal Beams. US Patent 9,932,664, 2018
  2. Allain, J.P., Reece, L., Yang, Z., Armonda, R., Kempaiah, R., Tigno, T.: System and Stent for Repairing Endovascular Defects and Methods of Use. US Patent 9,839,724B2